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|Melting Point Celcius||1412||937||1238||~1700|
|Atomic density (atoms/cm3)||4.00 x 10 to the 22||4.42 x 10 to the 22||2.21 x 10 to the 22||2.3 x 10 to the 22|
|Energy Band GaP (eV)||1.11||0.67||1.40||~8|
As of today, Silicon (Si) is still the most important material used in Si icon. Silicon wafers are used to fabricate devices. Si's unique physical and chemical properties provide the semiconductor industry with a cheap and abundant supply.
Silicon's atomic structure includes the following:
Silicon, although abundant, is not found in pure form. Si must be purified by refining it.
The melting point of Silicon 1412 deg C.
Pure Silicon is called Intrinsic Silicon and it has no impurities.
An example of Intrinsic Silicon specs are as follows:
Silicon makes up around 85% of the material used in Semiconductors. But why Silicon and not another material?
Below are the main reasons why Silicon and not Germanium, the first semiconductor, is used in semiconductors.
Not only can Silicon be purfied to make it Intrinsic, silicon can also be doped to create Extrinsic Silicon.
So extrinsic silicon is impure. But it's done on purpose to increase semiconductor conductivity.
Adding impurities or doping can change the electrical conductivitiy of the semiconductor.
Doping pure silicon reduces resistivity while it improved conductivity.
The heart of solid-state electronics is the pn junction. Pn junctions and is the reason why semiconductors can act as both an insulator and as a conductor.