Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Wafers for Research/Production

university wafer substrates

Gallium Arsenide Wafers Benefits Over Silicon

Two benefits of GaAs wafers over Silicon wafers are:2 inch gallium arsenide substrates

1) GaAs moves electrons faster while consuming less power. Think of your cell phone. Tight spaces and short battery life. GaAs provides a real advantage over silicon for some components.

2) GaAs has direct band-gap properties make all-optical buses direct light on-chips more efficiently than wires do on silicon.

Gallium Arsenide Inventory

FAST QUOTE for your GaAs Wafer Needs!

Gallium Arsenide for X-Ray Spectroscopy

A scientist needed help sourcing a GaAs Wafer:

Our research group is looking to purchase ultrasmooth GaAs wafers for a very sensitive optical setup. Do you have a wafer that is smooth to approximately +-10 nanometers with warp of the wafer below 100 nm across 5 mm. Essentially two of these wafers must have an unobstructed space across 5 mm if they are separated by a 200 nm gap. This wafer will be cut into multiple 5x10 mm segments so a 2'' diameter should suffice. Please let me know if you have any products that could work for us. If you do have a product could you send a quote as well.

We are using this for x-ray spectroscopy. We're essentially redoing an experiment but with a way more flat material.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

GaAs Item #1299
100mm Undoped <100> 1E7 625um DSP Prime Grade EPD (Average): less than or equal to 5,000, Doping: Semi-Insulating

Gallium Arsenide VGF and LEC Grown

We have Gallium Arsenide Wafers (GaAs) III-V direct band gap semiconductor that are both the commonly used Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) and also Liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) grown high-purity single crystal that are semi-insulating.

gallium arsenide periodic table of elements

Recently a researcher inquired about 150mm Gallium Arsenide with Chromium (Cr) doping.

Client request:

We are biding projects demanding around 20 pcs chromium-doped 6" GaAs wafers and 5~10pcs 4" Silicon-on-Sapphire(SOS) wafers. Can you offer these items?If yes, I will send you detailed specification.

Our Reply:

We do have the technology and equipment to make SI GaAs:Cr even in 150mm diameter.

How? A new crystal ingot would have to be grown and then sliced and polished into wafers. With Ro>1E8 Ohmcm, mobility >5,000cm²/Vs is unattainable, but we can probably reach u>4,000²/Vs. Likewise EPD<500/cm² is unrealistic for LEC process, but we can certainly achieve 5E4/cm². To dope with Chromium, we have to use the LEC rather than the VGF process.

We also quoted:

Semi-Insulating undoped Gallium Arsenide wafers, P/P

VGF SI GaAs:-[100 -2.0±0.5º towards <001>]±0.5°, Ro=(1.2-1.7)E8 Ohmcm, Both-sides-polished (Epi-Ready), Bow/Warp<30µm, Diameter 150.0±1.0mm, SEMI Notch @ (010)±5º, 1.0±0.25mm deep, {Mobility<5,000, EPD<500} crystal structures

Nickel Arsenide

Researchers also ask us if we carry Nickel Arsenide. We do. Please send us your specs.

Arsenic FYI

Arsenic atoms have 33 electrons and 33 protons with five valence electrons.

What Glass Bonds to Gallium Arsenide?

A researcher looking for glass (or quartz) wafers that is used for bonding to GaAs wafers. Below are the basic requirement:

  1. The glass wafer must be transparent at wavelength of 940nm
  2. Wafer diameter: 4 inch
  3. 3. Wafer thickness: ~500um
  4. 4. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is as close to CTE of GaAs (5.73 ppm/K) as possible.
  5. 5. Double side polished.

CTE of GaAs is 5.73 ppm/K = 5.73x10^-6 /K. So the CTE of the JGS2 Fused Silica is an order of magnitude lower than that of GaAs. 

I think in general CTE of quartz/fused silica is too low, while CTE of standard glass like BK7 is too high. Do you have something that may fit our purpose? 


We find that Corning 7056 or 7052 seem to be good options. Please send quantity for an immediate quote.

Gallium Arsenide to Make Laser Diodes

gaas based laser diodes

Which GaAs were grown with B2O3 flux and might have a useful boron acceptor concentration? 

Some of our wafers are grown by LEC and these have large Boron concentrations, and some are grown by VFG and these have little lower Boron concentrations.

Undoped Semi-Insulating GaAs tend to have lower Boron concentration than doped GaAs.

We also have some D shape wafers and small pieces of ingot of GaAs:Si that were crystallized by the HB process. This material was synthesized and then grown into crystals in quartz boats without the use of B2O3, so they are totally Boron-free (although I do not have formal GDMS measurements of their Boron concentration).

Let me know what material you require, and what Boron concentration in GaAs you can tolerate.

Let me know the type and degree of doping, weather you need wafers or crystal pieces, their size and thickness.

I am sure that we can find what you need.

Substrates Used for Metal Halide Perovskites Crystal Growth

Researchers have used the following Gallium Arsenide and Sapphire wafers for their research.

GaAs Item #3411
100mm N/Si <100> Res (1.2-9.9) x 10-3 350um SSP Surface Orientation: (100)15° off towards <111> A ±0.5°

GaAs Item #3508
100mm Undoped <100> Res 1E7 625um SSP GaAs VFG, semi-insulating, undoped, EPD: <7100 cm-2, Surface: DSP From Side: polished epi ready, Back Side: polished, Flats: US (2 flats)

Sapphire Item #2562
100mm <0001> 650um DSP C-M plane 0.2°, Double Side Polished, Micro-roughness: Ra<0.35nm, Primary flat length: 32.5±2.5mm. Warp<21um, TTV<16um

Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic–inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4–15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410–700 nm.

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Wafers for Testing X-ray Detector

Scientist asks:

I am looking for some special GaAs wafers for testing x-ray detector, something like described in this link. I notice that your site has chromium doped GaAs and it seems that they also have high resistivity, which is good. Do you have more information on your GaAs:Cr? Like what kind of growth method? How the Cr dopants were added?

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Item Typ/Dop Orient. Diam. Thck (um) Pol Res Ωcm Nc a/cm3 Mobil cm2/Vs EPD /cm2
Cr doped, EJ Flats, Epi Ready, 4 of 7 have edge chips
2186T SI GaAs:Cr [100] 2" 1,500 SSP 1.05E8-1.28E8   2,246-4,334 <3.3E4
Cr doped, EJ Flats, Epi Ready
7336 SI GaAs:Cr [100] 2" 400 DSP 1.05E8-1.15E8 (1.3-1.4)E8 2,246-4,334 <4E4

HR Gallium Arsenide Cr Sensors


Leading Supplier of Gallium Arsenide wafers up to 150mm in diameter. Below are just a small sample of Gallium Arsenide sale.

Undoped Semi-Insulating Epi Ready EJ & US Flats GaAs

Item Typ/Dop Ori Dia Thck(μm) Pol ResΩcm Nca/cm3 Mobil cm2/Vs EPD/cm2
5538 undoped SI  [100] 4" 2,000 P/P n-type >1E7      
7220 undoped SI  [100] 2" 350 P/E n-type >1E7      
6156 undoped SI  [100] 2" 110 ±15 P/P n-type >1E7     <3,200
6093 undoped SI  [100] 2" 380 P/E n-type 9.67E7 1.15E+07 5,590 <7E4
H093 undoped SI  [100] 2" 500 P/E n-type 9.5E7 1.20E+07 5,360 <6E4
7187 undoped SI  [100] 1" 350 P/P n-type >1E7      
7259 undoped SI  [110] 2" 350 P/E n-type >1E7   2,865-5,100 <1E5
5628 undoped SI  [310] ±0.5° 2" 400 P/E n-type 5.5E7 1.90E+07 5,800 <1,400
6814 undoped SI  [100] 2" 1,000 P/P n-type 1.18E8 1.45E+07 3,656 <4.5E4
T3882 undoped SI  [100] 4" 625 P/E n-type >1E7      
T3309 undoped SI  [100] 3" 350 P/E n-type >1E7      
3F512 undoped SI  [100] 3" 500 P/E n-type >1E7      
6F2 undoped SI  [100] 3" 625 P/E n-type >1E7      
3F512B undoped SI  [100-4° towards[110]] 3" 625 P/E n-type >1E7      
2295A undoped SI  [100-4° towards[111A]] ±0.5° 51.3mm 380 P/E n-type 7.4E7 1.70E+07 5,000 <8E4
3F316 undoped SI  [100-3° towards[01-1]] ±0.5° 2" 350 P/E n-type >1E7      
O1416 undoped SI  [100] 2" 350 P/E n-type >1E7      
3F422 undoped SI  [100-2° towards[110]] ±0.5° 2" 400 P/E n-type >1E7      
O396 undoped SI  [100-0.8° towards[110]] ±0.2° 2" 482 P/E n-type >1E7      
O399 undoped SI  [100-8° towards[110]] ±0.5° 2" 490 P/E n-type >1E7      
A1497 undoped SI  [100-2° towards[110]] 2" 500 P/E n-type >1E7      
2237 undoped SI  [100] 2" 6,700 P/P n-type 1.1E8 1.10E+07 5,000 <1E5
2328C undoped SI  [100] 2" 5,000 P/E n-type 4E7 2.70E+07 5,700 <5.3E4
2313 undoped SI  [110] 2" 500 P/P n-type (3.2-11)E7 3,700-4,400 <6,000
2308B undoped SI  [310] ±0.5° 2" 400 P/E n-type 5.5E7 1.90E+07 5,800 <1,400
3F543 undoped SI  [111B] 4" 625 P/E n-type >1E7      
A817 undoped SI  [111B] 3" 630 P/E n-type >1E7      
O1706 undoped SI  [111B] 2" 350 P/E n-type >1E7      
O1375 undoped SI  [111A] 2" 450 P/E n-type >1E7      

N-Type Silicon Doped GaAs

Item Typ/Dop Ori Dia Thck(μm) Pol ResΩcm Nca/cm3 Mobil cm2/Vs EPD/cm2
6F19 N/Si [100] 4" 625 P/E   (1.6-3.1)    
1F1058 N/Si [100] 4" 625 P/E   (3-8)E17    
3F296 N/Si [100] 3" 650 P/E   (3.68-8.15)E16    
A819 N/Si [100] 3" 400 P/E   (3.84-5.10)E17    
1F516 N/Si [100] 3" 625 P/E   (1.01-1.64)E18    
1F055 N/Si [100] 2" 620 P/E   (2.32-8.18)E17    
3F051 N/Si [100-2° towards[011]] 2" 350 P/E   (0.91-1.36)E18   <2,500
A825B N/Si [111B] 2" 750 P/E   (3.8-8.7)E16    
A825 N/Si [111A] 2" 750 P/E   (3.8-8.7)E16    
A1337 N/Si [111B] 2" 450 P/E   (2.27-2.81)E17    
A1289 N/Si [111B] 2" 500 P/E   (1.13-1.34)E18    
7256 N/Si [100] 4" 625 P/E   (3-8)E17   <10,000
E876 N/Si [100-15° towards[111A]] ±0.5° 4" 350 ±20μm P/E   (0.4-4.0) >1,000 <5,000
6418 N/Si [100-2.0° towards[110]] ±0.5° 4" 350 P/E 0.0012-0.0099 (2-4)E18 1,500-2,500 <3,000
7175 N/Si [100] ±0.25° 2" 450 ±10 P/E <0.1 (5-100)E16 >1,000 <8,000
K220 N/Si [100] 2" 350 P/E   (8.8-10.4)E17    

P-Type Zinc (Zn) Doped GaAs

Item Typ/Dop Ori Dia Thck(μm) Pol ResΩcm Nca/cm3 Mobil cm2/Vs EPD/cm2
3F214F P/Zn [100] 4" 625 P/E   (3.1-4.2)    
A562P P/Zn [111B] 2" 400 P/E   (7.65-17.00)E18    
3F297 P/Zn [100] 3" 625 P/E   (2.22-7.25)E18    
3F214 P/Zn [100] 3" 625 P/E   (1.1-4.2)    
O908 P/Zn [100] 2" 350 P/E   (4.44-14.20)E16    
7151 P/Zn [100] ±0.25° 4" 450 P/E <7E-3 (3.1-4.2) >81 <10,000
5490 P/Zn [100] 2" 400 P/E 1.3-420.0 (9-29)E15 47-163 <5E4
6165 P/Zn [100] 2" 300 P/P 1.81 2.46E+16 140 <5E4
L220 P/Zn [100] 2" 350 P/E   (1-3.08)E17    
D175 P/Zn [100] ±0.25° 2" 450 ±10 P/E   (8-30)E18   <8,000
H180 P/Zn [100-6° towards[110]] ±0.5° 2" 350 P/E 0.0030 - 0.0065 (1.0-2.7) 75-84 <1,906
6272 P/Zn [111B] ±0.5° 2" 300 P/E 0.10-0.12 (2.8-3.0) 193-208 <5.7E4

Chromium (Cr) Doped GaAs

Item Typ/Dop Ori Dia Thck(μm) Pol ResΩcm Nca/cm3 Mobil cm2/Vs EPD/cm2
T3911 SI GaAs:Cr [100] 4" 625 P/P >1E7      
7336 SI GaAs:Cr [100] 2" 400 P/P 1.05E8-1.15E8 (1.3-1.4)E8 2,246-4,334 <4E4

N-Type Tellerium (Te) Doped GaAs

Item Typ/Dop Ori Dia Thck(μm) Pol ResΩcm Nca/cm3 Mobil cm2/Vs EPD/cm2
6974 N/Te [111] ±0.5° 1" 500 P/P 0.00245 8.21E+17 3,101 <5E4
T3686 N/Te [100] 4" 750 P/P   (3.6-17.0)    

What Gallium Arsenide Wafers are Used in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC)?

Researchers have used undoped GaAs substrates for their MMIC research. The GaAs Integrated Circuits are fabricated to operate at 3 to 300 GHz. To meet this high speed requirement for switching we would suggest using Semi-Insulating GaAs wafers with Ro>1E7 Ohm-cm to prevent high current induction in the circuit.  For integrated circuits (rather than individual transistors) it is best to work with (100) orientation {rather than  (111) or (110).

Please let us know if you have any questions.

What is a Common Doping Level for Gallium Arsenide Wafers?

A researcher had the following request: For the other specs: 100mm diameter, single-side polished, and high purity. The 1E15cm^(-3) electron concentration is the biggest concern for us, since it looks like it is not a common doping level for GaAs.

UniversityWafer, Inc Answer:

For the quantity, we only need just one 100mm diameter wafer, if possible. If just one is not possible, we may be able to purchase more depending on the cost.

Item Qty. Description
GW75. 1/2/3 Gallium Arsenide wafers, Prime Grade, P/E 4" (100.0±0.1 mm)Ø×625±50µm,
VGF n-type GaAs:Si[100]±0.5°, Ro=(0.038-0.132)Ohmcm,
Nc=(1.6-3.1)E16/cc, u=(1,808-3,229)cm²/Vs, EPD<4700/cm²,
One-side-polished, back-side matte etched, EJ Flats,
Sealed under nitrogen in single wafer cassette.

Undoped GaAs has mobility <4000 and carriers concentration ~1E16. The carriers are naturally coming from the crucible to melt during the growth process. The mobility you mention (~8000) is theoretically possible for GaAs epitaxial layers only, not for bulk materials. GW75 wafer is the one with the characteristics that are state-of-the-art technology and the closest possible to your requirements.

High-Efficiency Photo-Electron Conversion Devices

Researchers have used the followign GaAs Wafers for their experiments. Reference SO30516.

Item #T3882
100mm Undoped GaAs (100) SSP 625 micron SSP

Item #3F120
50.8mm P-type Zinc doped GaAs (100) 350 micron SSP

Item #A1494
76.2mm P/Zn GaAs (100) 400 micron SSP

GaAs Wafers to Develop Fabrication Processes

A researcher requested a quote for epitaxy ready (100) undoped (semi-insulating) GaAs 2” wafers with one side polished. Would it be possible to have a quote for 10 substrates? 

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Item Material Orient. Diam. Thck
Surf. Resistivity
7175 n-type GaAs:Si [100] ±0.25° 2" 450 ±10 SSP <0.1 (5-100)E16 >1,000 <8,000 VGF; EJ Flats; Epi Ready
J180 undoped SI GaAs:-   N/A  
2" 350 n-type N/A   N/A  
SEMI TEST (shallow pits), NO Flats; Epi Ready, Group of 5 wafers

Undoped Gallium Arsenide Wafers

A researcher asked the following: I need an informal offer for some semiconductor Wafer (disc shape). The specifications must be the same for each material: - diameter 2"/3" or something similar -thickness 1 mm or something similar -both faces polished -Undoped The materials of interest for me are: Silicon, Germanium, GaAs, GaP and InP. If there is something available, please let me know the cost.

What Does it Mean Undoped SI GaAs?

(A1) Undoped GaAs means that the GaAs was not intentionally doped during the ingot growth process. There was no dopant added during ingot production. SI means that the material is Semi Insulating which corresponds to very high resistivity ~1.18E8 Ohm-cm.

(Q2) We are talking abut a wafer of crystaline pure GaAs?
(A2) We are talking about the purest GaAs monocrystalline material that money can buy. During the growth process the GaAs is melted in the crucible. The impurities are coming from the quartz crucible to the melt (and from the melt to the crystal). Majority of them are Si atoms. After the ingot production is finished the impurities are present in the bulk crystals. In the result no crystals are 100% pure. However, the amount of impurities is very small.

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Wafers for Terahertz-Light Generation

A research client ask if we could help them:

We are looking for GaAs wafers for terahertz-light generation. Could we ask about the cost and availability of the following item?: - undoped GaAs. - polished on both sides. - [110] orientation. - 1" diameter (or 2"). - 0.5 mm thickness. We find that the part number 2313 matches our needs, except for the size (we prefer smaller 1" diameter). 

UniversityWafer, Inc. quoted and researcher purchased:

2" Undoped, GaAs, <110> 500+/-20um, 1flat

Notched 150mm Reclaimed Gallium Arsenide Wafers

Research clients have purchased:

150mm Undoped SI Reclaimed GaAs (100) 525um DSP N-type, Epi Ready

We plan to use Bulk GaAs with some test pattern to run some etch process/hardware development trials for a VCSEL & BSV type process.

Researcher asked the following Questions and our reply:

Thank you for the questions, your answers are below:

Q1) Can you confirm that these are notched wafers?  
A1) Yes, they are notched.

Q2) Do you only have 25 in stock?
A2) Yes, we stock 25 pcs. We can deliver more if needed.   

Q3) Are you likely to replenish your inventory on a regular basis? 
A3) Yes, that is correct.

What is the Refractive Index of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)?

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) is a compound III-V semiconductor that includes both gallium and arsenide. GaAs substrates are used to fabricate the following electronic devices:

  • Microwave frequency integrated circuits
  • Monolithic microwave integrated circuits
  • Infrared light-emitting diodes
  • Laser diodes
  • Solar cells
  • Optical windows

For a typical sample of GaAs the refractive index and extinction coefficient at 632.8 nm are 3.85744 and 0.1983491. Below are files of complete refractive index and extinction coefficients. If the file is not available for download, you can request our proprietary file by clicking "Request".

Below are some applications that GaAs wafer benefits

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Light Emitting Diodes

gaas LED

GaAs LED color spectrum Infrared, red, orange, yellow.


Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Solar Panels

GaAs solar panels are more robust for space applications than silicon based solar panels as gallium arsenide modules handle high temperatures better.
high temperatures

GaAs solar panels are insensitive to heat. It is also resistant to radiation.

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Fast Electronic Switching

gaas fast switchAlthough silicon integrated circuits are ubiqutous, other materials, including GaAs, may be the future, albeit at a higher cost.

Gallium Arsenide Hall Effect Sensor

A GaAs Hall magnetic sensor used to detect magnetic fields then sends the analog signal for position detection. Below is a BLTOUCH Hall Effect Sensor used to help level the beds of 3D Printers for more preceise prints.

galllium arsenide hall effect sensor for 3d printers