Cleaving Silicon Wafers for Research & Development

university wafer substrates

How to Cleave a Silicon Wafer

When cleaving silicon wafers, it is important to follow the correct orientation of the samples. For instance, if the sample is 60 degrees on one side, it must be cleaved along the 110 plane. The following are some tips to follow when chopping a silicon wafer. It is important to understand the correct orientation of the material. Also, if you are using the tool for semiconductor purposes, use a high-quality diamond scribe tip.

Please let us know if you have any questions or need instructions for silicon wafer cutting.

how do you cleave silicon wafers


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How To Cleave Silicon Wafers

New technology will make cleaving silicon wafers much easier.

The LatticeAx (tm) will certainly revolutionize your workflow. It is the goal of our invention today, to give you the ability to produce 110% silicon wafers that can eliminate the need for wire sawing and improve your production yield ratio. [Sources: 1, 11]

If you want to keep 110% silicon wafers stable, you need to be aware of the level orientation of the silicon wafer. The current inventor has therefore produced the wafers and confirms that they are less likely to be broken during cutting than conventional 100% silicon wafers. The cutting is done in such a way that all the wires travelling in all directions become a single piece of silicon, with about 200% of the 110% silicon wafers being produced. If you cut a single-crystal silicon ingot with a wire saw that has a plane orientation of up to 110, which grows from the crystal orientation 110 in the direction of growth, then you can produce 110 + silicon wafers with wire saws. [Sources: 1]

The simplest solution is to use a type of silicon ingot that has a float zone in which the silicon grows in the direction of growth, rather than in the plane orientation of the wafer. [Sources: 6]

For example, the substrate can be bebe or a combination of two different substrate types, such as silicon wafers with different orientations and sizes. [Sources: 2, 10]

Prime wafers, "prime" refers to the highest possible quality of silicon wafers, with a variety of "primates" being covered and other types of wafers being included among the others. First grade silicon, as used primarily for the test process, but also for other applications. [Sources: 2, 7, 9]

SEMI specifies the mass, surface area and physical properties required to designate a silicon wafer as a "True Prime Wafer." However, wafers that meet these specifications are rare and quite expensive, so those that do not meet the specification are collected and sold as coin rolls. Some silicon sellers buy these waffles, where hundreds of them are stacked on top of each other and resemble a coin roll. This can be used to make small silicon substrates by breaking the wafers into smaller pieces by crushing them in a break-in process. [Sources: 5, 7]

Silicon wafers can also be produced using laser-based techniques such as stealth-dicing. In this process, an implanted silicone wafer is used, which is connected to a workpiece on the target wafer, as shown in FIG. The step is also used to split the surface, for example by applying a thin layer of silicone to a silicone substrate. [Sources: 0, 4]

Here, a high-quality stop layer is often supplied, and the silicon insulator, which is connected to the wafer, has an oxide layer in between, as shown in FIG. [Sources: 0, 2]

A device manufactured on an SOI wafer may also have a photo - induced current, but no high-voltage current. One of the advantages of SO-I wafers over bulk silicon wafers is that the area required to insulate components from the SoI wafer is much smaller than the area normally required to insulate bulk silicon wafers. Various techniques have been proposed and used to isolate these devices, some of which isolate them from each other on the mass of a silicone wafer. These techniques include growing a thin layer of silicon on a sapphire substrate, joining this layer to the insulating substrate, forming an insulation layer between the silicon layer and the bulk silicone wafer, and so on. [Sources: 0]

According to the above general procedure, a set of silicon wafers is cut and then measured with an XRAY diffractometer. 110% of the silicon wafer is produced with a conventional wire saw (which has a tilting mechanism) and the silicon single crystal ingot (which is drawn to a diameter of 300% according to the Czochralski method) is cut into two parts. [Sources: 1, 3]

The stop layer, which is epitaxial to the silicon, is selectively removed from the remaining fission layer and the goal is to provide the right amount of tension for splitting silicon (silicon is larger at the growing edge of the fission and lower at other points, particularly vulnerable on the outside of the crystal). This technique limits the amount of crystal defects that are introduced into silicon wafers during the bonding process, as essentially no mechanical force is required to initiate the bonding action in the wafer. This is a multi-dimensional problem: cracks that spread at the atomic level begin with the rupture of chemical bonds, and crack tips end in catastrophic wather decomposition. [Sources: 0, 2, 6, 8]

In order to create reproducible starting conditions for crack breakage, a standard 001 silicon wafer was damaged using nano-indent technology. Wafer defects range from imperfections buried in silicon masses to defects on the surface of the wafer to cracks on the outside of silicon. [Sources: 7, 8]















Cleaving Silicon Wafers

Micro-cleaving tools have been used to cleave silicon wafers for over 30 years. While they improved targeting silicon wafer cutting toolaccuracy and sample quality, they were still limited by lower throughput, high cost, and inability to handle small samples. LatticeAx 420 is Electron Microscopy Sciences' highest-quality clive solution. It combines a small footprint workstation with a vision package and four-um optical resolution. This device enables cleaving with 10um accuracy in a matter of five minutes.

The standard process for cleaving silicon wafers produces dies with controlled dimensions and less material loss. Today, the thinnest cut of silicon is 200um. The quality of silicone wafers is crucial to the final product. The cleaving process directly affects the thickness and surface crystal orientation of the silicon. It is important to follow the process specifications, because any mistake can lead to uneven thickness, roughness, or loss of valuable materials.

If for some reason you don't know if your wafers are (100) or (111) orientation, then you can use a hammer and nail to find out!

Cleaving (100) silicon wafers results on the left

Cleaving (111) silicon wafers

Watch the video above for cleaving instruction.


cleaving silicon results for 100 and 111 orientations


Let us know if you have any questions.

Researchers Experiment with CO2 Laser to Cleave Glass

In the experiment, researchers used a soda lime glass. We used a CO2 laser to cut the glass. After cutting, we observed the crack propagation using a high-speed polarization camera. The crack propagated as we expected. We measured the retardation of birefringence using a polarization camera and compared it with that of a numerical calculation. We also observed the retardation of birefringence at the crack tip. The retardation was consistent with that caused by mode I deformation. The mode I deformation decreased as the crack approached the edge of the glass.

Easy to Cleave Silicon Wafer Specs

How to cut silicon wafer? A scientist has asked the following question: We need 20 mm / 20 mm rectangular chips diced from naturally oxidized (100) (undoped) Si wafers, 400 microns thick. We need about 100 chips. We want to make sure that we can cleave them easily along a direction parallel to the rectangle sides, therefore the chips should be cut along the [100] directions. Can you please provide a quote?  Just to confirm, the Si chips should be single-side polished and not be intentionally oxidized (just bare undoped Si, only naturally oxidized) which is very important for our application.

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

20mm x 20mm x 400um Chip, <100>, Undoped, SSP
Quantity: 100pcs
Ask for pricing.

What About Cleaving Germanium Wafers?

A researcher asks Do Germanium (100) wafers have cleavage planes? Dicing is not an option at the moment. Do cleavage planes for Germanium (100) essentially behave like Silicon (100), with cleavage planes being parallel to the major/minor flats (like you show in your left picture on your website, and in your weblink to the video on cleaving Si). Is that correct?

We already bought a (100) Germanium wafer from University Wafer earlier this summer (see forwarded email below). I just wanted to double-check with you before making a cleaving attempt. I'm very comfortable cleaving  with GaAs/InP/Si etc, but I have not yet tried Ge wafers.

Researcher purchased

Ge Item #2478
50.8mm Undoped <100> >50 ohm-cm 500um SSP

UniversityWafer, Inc. Replied:

The difference between cleaving Silicon vs Germanium wafers is that you have to dice by machine. Simply cleaving will not provide good results as Ge are more brittle than Si.