Czochralski & Float Zone Silicon Ingots to Manufacture Wafers

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Silicon Ingot Supplier

The quality of the silicon ingot is critical to the success of any electronic device, yet producing a high-quality ingot is difficult and time-consuming.

UniversityWafer, Inc.'s high-quality silicon ingot helps scientists reach their goals. Our Si Ingots meet all industry standards for thickness and flatness, ensuring that your device will function at its best.

Czochralski and Float Zone Silicon Ingots all diameters and lengths available. Researcher discounts available.

Solar PV Monocrystal Silicon IngotWe have a large selection of Silicon Ingots. Below is just a short list. Contac us if you need other specs!

Get Your Silicon Ingot Quote FAST!

 

From Silicon Ingots To Silicon Wafers

A vertical rod with a seed crystal at the top is dipped in a silicon melt and then gradually turned over and pulled out. Doping elements are added to the melt to modulate the electronic properties of the semiconductor. A large single ingot - a crystal ingot, also called boules - is extracted and a large number of smaller ingots, also called "boules," of a similar size are concealed.

The boules are then used to make wafers, with a series of steps being carried out to achieve the thickness and flatness required for electronic applications. These parameters are crucial to meet the requirements for the electronic properties of the semiconductor, as well as its thermal conductivity and electrical properties.

Monocrystal Silicon Ingot Inventory

Let us know which ingot spec works for you?

mono crystal si ingot

Silicon Ingot Used in Space Observatories

One use for silicon ingots is in telescopes!

Silicon Ingot Fabrication

ingot siliconThe crystal wax technique, or Czochralski technique (CZ technique), is processed as a single wax process - crystal-silicon gel - as ingots. The other method, the so-called single crystal silicone processing process (SLS), processes single crystals made of silicon into a gel.

The molten silicon is contained in a quartz crucible and is contaminated with various impurities, including oxygen. Silicon atoms in the liquid maintain their regular atomic arrangement and continue to crystallize into the previously formed single crystals. The silicon wafer is heated and melted using CZ technology, and the so-called seed crystals are then immersed in a melting solution. If the seed crystal turns slightly upwards during melting, crystallization will form as long as the entire crystallization environment is stable.

During crystal growth, the silicon ingot is penetrated by a concentration of oxygen. This is the typical temperature used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, and this concentration, together with oxygen, penetrates the crystal lattice until it reaches a predetermined concentration, which is normally determined by the melting temperature. During melting, oxygen can penetrate through the lattice of the crystals and reach a predetermined concentration, which is normally determined by the melting temperature.

As the crystals grow and are cooled to molten silicon, the solubility of oxygen in the crystal decreases. After the silicon ingot is cut into a wafer, oxygen is saturated into the cooled silicon ingot and the oxygen concentration increases until it is saturated with cooling.

The interstitial oxygen remaining in the wafer is produced by oxygen precipitation during the subsequent thermal process. This can reduce the integrity of the Torox and cause problems for the silicon ingot and other materials.

Silicon Ingot Technology

The crystal wax method, called the Czochralski technique (CZ si ingot toptechnique), processes single crystals made of silicone. The single crystal silicon gel is processed by incorporating it into a single crystal of silicon, and the crystalline wax method by incorporating it into a gel.

Silicon atoms in the liquid maintain their regular atomic arrangement and continue to crystallize into the previously formed single crystal. When the entire crystallization environment is stable, crystallizations form in a single crystalline state. CZ technology heats a silicon wafer and melts it into a quartz crucible containing molten silicon contaminated with various impurities, including oxygen. A so-called "seed crystal" made of silicon is immersed in this melting solution. The seed crystal turns slightly upwards during melting and then turns downwards to melt.

The concentration of oxygen that penetrates the silicon ingots during crystal growth is immersed at the typical temperature used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. At melting temperature, oxygen can penetrate the crystal lattice until it reaches a predetermined concentration, which is usually determined by the temperature at which it melts.

As the crystal grows and is cooled to molten silicon, the solubility of oxygen in the crystals decreases. The silicon ingots are cut into wafers and oxygen immersed to saturate the cooled silicon ingots.

The interstitial oxygen remaining in the wafer ensures the precipitation of oxygen during the subsequent thermal process. This can reduce the integrity of the Torox and cause problems for the silicon ingots and other materials.

Steps Using Casting Method To Fabricate Silicon Ingot

The crucible is evacuated and a loaded crucible is placed in it, and the bottom is heated to a certain temperature. It reaches a point where it is sintered to form a polycrystalline silicon powder, the top of the sintered layer is connected to the monocrystalline wafers of the silicon wafer and then the bottom (the "sintered layer") is heated, thereby fixing the monocrystalline silicon wafers.

The upper part of the monocrystalline silicon wafers is melted and the lower part (the "sintered layer") is kept in a solid state. Then the crystal grains are controlled to grow, and finally the silicon ingot is extracted. In the final step, it is melted in the crucible to a certain temperature to keep the crystalline wafer in its solid state, and then the upper and lower parts melt together.

The bottom layer of the raw material also contains an additive powder, and it is a mixture of fluorosilicic acid and silicic acid. In step 1, the particle size of polycrystalline silicon powder is 500 - 5000 meshes and the purity is 99.999% or more. The thickness of the floor material is between 0.1 and 1.5 mm and the particles of the size in the additive powders are between 1000 and 20,000 meshes. This is the mixture in which the additives and the powder are all silicones, with purity of 99% and 999% and more, respectively.

The monocrystalline silicon wafer is produced by cutting a monocrystalline silicon rod with a thickness of between 5 mm and 30 mm. The size of crystalline silicon wafers is between 0.1 mm and 1.5 mm, with a purity of 99.999% or more and a diameter of between 1 - 2 mm or less.

The vacuum level for evacuation in step 2 is 10.1 Pa (105 Pa) and the temperature at which the single crystal silicon wafer is heated is between 10 - 10 degrees Celsius (Celsius). The temperature of the polycrystalline silicon powder sintered at the bottom of the crucible is 1380 - 1405 degrees Celsius. In step 3, the surface of a single crystalline wafer is overwritten by 10 to 10 degrees, compared to 90 percent of the melt. The temperatures to which single crystals from silicone wafers can heat up at this temperature are between 10,000 and 12,500 degrees Fahrenheit. (0,5 - 2,200 degrees Celsius).

Crystal Silicon Ingot Formation Video

What Silicon Ingot is used for EPSRG Grating Manufacturing?

Scientist requested the following:

"We need a Si ingot with dimensions 500mm x 250mm x 80mm for our EPSRC Grating Manufacturing research project. We do not require a high purity so we would like to get the price low. We would like to have your quote on the cheapest option for an ingot of the size if you can supply.

We are developing a long stroke lithography engine to make Echelle gratings. The polycrystalline Si block we asked for would be used to support tiled monocrystalline Si wafers for our engine tests. The engine will be designed to make metre-sized gratings. Thus, we would need a longer polycrystalline Si block in the future.

Although we do not have high purity requirement on the block material, its CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) needs to be equivalent to the Si wafers to eliminate relative movement when the engine is in operation.

Can we please have additional information on the block material you can supply?

  1. the purity of the quoted block.
  2. the dimensional tolerances of the cut on the quoted block
  3. whether you can do/arrange more complex machining than just cutting to size. In which case, I will supply drawings.
  4. what the maximum dimensions of block you can supply would be?"

UniversityWafer, Inc. Quoted:

Polycrystalline silicon
1 block with dimensions 500mm x 250mm x 80mm
Please reference #266862 for pricing

What is Etchelle Gratings?

This invention is directed to the field of photonics, particularly Echelle gratings having a lower polarization dependent loss (PDL) to be used as a multiplexer and demultiplexer in a wave division multiplex communications system.    Show Source Texts

Echelle gratings may be used as the diffractive element of a wavelength division multiplexer or demultiplexer device. Diffraction gratings are manufactured in various geometries depending on the requirements of the application. Depending on the requirements, the size, shape, material of the cladding, and other factors of the diffraction gratings will vary. 

What is Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)?

The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a measure of a materials expansion or contraction as temperature increases. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE, A, or A 1) is a property of the material, indicating how much a material expands when heated. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, commonly called a) is a material property that characterizes a plastics capacity for expanding in response to the effects of temperature gradients

What Silicon Ingots Diameters are Available?

Below are just some of the silicon ingots that we have in stock.

Note: Material - CZ unless noted

Kg inStock Properties of Silicon
Silicon Ingots
Material Description
2.7 Float Zone 6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
1.15 FZ 6"Ø×25mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (7,025-7,865)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=7,562µs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SilChm
1.6 FZ 6"Ø×27mm ground ingot n-type Si:P[100], (7,503-7,875)Ohmcm, 1Flat, made by SilChm
3.8 FZ 6"Ø×80mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, (57-62)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, MCC Lifetime=15,799µs, made by SilChm
4.53 FZ 6"Ø×101mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.350-0.353)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChem
2.4 FZ 6"Ø×52mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (23.86-25.05)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=16,352µs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
5.34 FZ 6"Ø×124mm n-type Si:P[100], (0.556-0.600)Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by SilChm
10.68 FZ 6"Ø×248mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.557-0.565)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
11.91 FZ 6"Ø×275mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.307-0.313)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
1.7 FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 6,285-10,516 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6000μs, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 37.8mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
2.5 FZ 6"Ø×53mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], Ro=~2.7 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=7,903µs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
3.05 FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 6,218-10,002 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 70mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
10.11 FZ 6"Ø×236mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (25.70-26.29)Ohmcm, Lifetime=2,218us, NO Flats, made by SilChm
6.49 FZ 6"Ø×206mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (4.65-5.11)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=2,225µs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
1.4 FZ 6"Ø×34mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], Ro>4,800 Ohmcm, T>1,000μs, 1 JEIDA Flat (47.5mm), made by PHTS
11.88 FZ 6"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100] ±2.0°, Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by PHTS
5.5 FZ 5"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,879-3,258 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 172mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by SilChm
1.7 FZ 5"Ø×59mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (5,400-7,200)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,200µs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
3.36 FZ 5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 70-110 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 115mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Topsil
0.3 FZ 4"Ø×14mm P/B[100], (2,700-8,300)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000µs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
1.06 FZ 4"Ø×55mm P/B[100], (1,000-2,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>700µs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
0.96 FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 2,600-3,800 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 99mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
4.04 FZ 4"Ø×210mm P/B[100] (500-1,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=700µs, Ground, NO Flats, made by PHTS
1.78 FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 133-155 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>7400μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 169mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
2.79 FZ 4"Ø×143mm ingot P/B[100]±2°, Ro=2,100 Ohmcm {actual=(1,953-2,265)}, NO Flats, made by Generic
2.43 FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 16,000-19,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 125mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
1.94 FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 1,900-3,600 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 100mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
5.3 FZ 4"Ø×320mm ingot P/B[100], (1.0-1.1)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=1,511µs, NO Flats
4.66 FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 7,200-9,557 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 250mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
4.66 FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 8,220-12,252 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 237mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
0.74 FZ 4"Ø×38mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] (0.8-2.5) {0.91-2.29}Ohmcm, Lifetime >300µs, Ox<1E16/cc, C<1E16/cc, NO Flats, made by Pluto
1.49 FZ 4"Ø×73mm, ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, (198-200)Ohmcm, Lifetime=12,904µs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
0.7 FZ 4"Ø×40mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] Ro>5,000Ohmcm {4,980-6,370}, Lifetime>980µs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
0.99 FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 402-434 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm due 5/9/2017
1.33 FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 2,886-3,624 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 129mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
3.89 FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 1-2 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>300μs, (2 ingots: 50mm, 158mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Pluto
4.87 FZ 4"Ø×400mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] (446.9-458.9)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=10,670µs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
2.07 FZ 4"Ø×105mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (1-2)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
5.7 FZ 4"Ø×374mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (429.4-453.7)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=11,866µs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
1.02 FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[551] ±2°, Ro:>4,800Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat (47.5mm), T>1,000μs, made by PHTS
0.6 FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 6,100-7,800 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1300μs, (1 ingot: 38mm) NO Flats, made by PHTS
10 FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by DX due 6/15
5.78 FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 126mm, 106mm, 81mm) NO Flats, made by Pluto
0.86 FZ 3"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 {1.29-1.32} Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, (2 ingots: 21mm, 54mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
4.05 FZ Ingot 3"Ø×(112+265)mm, P/B[111] ±2°, (1,800-3,000)Ohmcm, Lifetime>1,000μs, SEMI, NO Flats, made by PHTS
1 FZ 3"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 1,000-2,000 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by Pluto
0.55 FZ 3"Ø×102mm ingot P/B[111] ±2°, (4,400-4,600)Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat, made by SPC
4.4 FZ 3"Ø×(129+131+147)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, (40-60)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
2.5 FZ 3"Ø×(117+135)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro>5,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000µs, NO Flats, made by Pluto
4.63 FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 5,750-6,850 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6,000μs, As-Grown, (2 ingots: 250mm, 239mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
5.18 FZ NTD 3"Ø×(197+277)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (50-60)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>400μs, Ox<1E16/cc, C<1E16/cc, RRV<10%, 1 SEMI Flat, made by Tianjin Huan.
1 FZ 3"Øx90mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (2,000-6,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2,000μs, Ox<1E16/cc, C<1E16/cc, RRV<35%, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS.
2 FZ 3"Ø×188mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±0.5°, Ro:>2,000 {2.330-3,300}Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,640µs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
4.24 FZ 3"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto due 6/8/2017
2.29 FZ 3"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >17,500 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by PHTS
4.49 FZ 2"Ø×(132+124+124+123+115+107+100+99)mm ingots, P/B[100] ±2°, (1,000-3,000)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by Pluto
0.32 FZ 2"Ø×64.5mm ingot P/B[100]±2º, (2,879-3,258)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW
4.3 FZ 2"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 {1.29-1.32} Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, (2 ingots: 58mm, 84mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
0.16 FZ 2"Ø×38mm ingot, P/B[100]±2º, Ro:~2,900Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SPC
8.32 FZ 2"Ø×(392+342+304+263+250+175)mm ingots, P/B[111]±2º, (2,000-5,000)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SiT
0.4 FZ 2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: ~2.7 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>7903μs, Ground, (2 ingots: 38mm, 39mm) , made by CSW
2.97 FZ 2"Ø×(100+87+86+85+85+84)mm ingots, n-type Si:P[111], (2,000-4,000) {2,166-3,835} Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
0.55 FZ 2"Ø×26mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111]±2º, (5,000-13,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,100μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
1.29 FZ 2"Ø×(97+64+56+48)mm ingots, Intrinsic Si:-[100]±2º, Ro>10,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
2.41 FZ 2"Ø×(128+81+80+79+75+71+71+71+71)mm ingots, Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro>20,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by DX
1.21 FZ 2"Ø×(160+98)mm ingots, Intrinsic Si:-[111]±2º, Ro>12,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
0.5 FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro:1-3 Ohmcm, (5 ingots: 76mm, 80mm, 80mm, 82mm, 82mm) NO Flats, Lifetime=300µs. made by SPC
0.1 FZ SCRAP, Improperly cored 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro:1-3Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 81mm) Improper flat running for 70% of the length of the ingot
0.24 FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro:3,400-4,100Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 75mm, 76mm, 77mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by ITME
1 FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,879-3,258 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 31mm, 0.05Kg, $200 for the piece) NO Flats, made by CSW
0.25 FZ 1"Ø(37+37+38+38)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100]±2°, Ro: ~2.7 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>7,000μs, made by CSW
0.86 FZ 1Ø×60mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (1-2)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
0.9 FZ Silicon Ingot, 48mmØx217mm, n-type Si:P[111], Ro=~300 Ohmcm, (p-type Ro>3,000 Ohmcm), NO Flats, made in TARNOW, Poland
2 FZ 1"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats,
2 FZ 1"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >17,500 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW
1 FZ 6.35mmØ ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111], Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, (1 lot of 8 rods, each 51mm long) made by CSW
1 FZ 6.35mmØ ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111], Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, (1 lot of 11 rods, each ranging from 15mm to 49mm long) made by CSW
10 FZ 0.5"Ø×110mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 5,497-10,293 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6,500µs. made by SilChm, 10 pieces, each piece is 0.5"Ø, 0.029Kg and 100mm long.
6.8 FZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
2.24 FZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1,000-10,000 Ohmcm
6.78 FZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
19.35 FZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1,000-10,000 Ohmcm
5.6 FZ SCRAP material Intrinsic, Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm
5.12 6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 85mm) SEMI, 1Flat (57.5mm), made by Prolog
0.95 6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 21mm) NO Flats, made by Antek
7.65 6"Ø ingot P/B[110], Ro: >10 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 183mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
11.12 6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 0.015-0.020 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by Prolog
2.05 6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.5-1.0 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 48mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
5.36 6"Ø ingot P/B[110], Ro: 18.5-23.5 Ohmcm, Graphite rail 165° from flat,(1 ingot: 137mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
0.7 6"Ø×12mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (6.76-10.28)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Prolog
6.72 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (4 ingots: 190mm, 96mm, 189mm, 184mm) SEMI, 1Flat (57.5mm), made by Prolog
3.68 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.0118-0.0132 Ohmcm, NO Flats,
15.96 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (5 ingots: 234mm, 150mm, 154mm, 221mm, 208mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
13.7 6"Ø×(20+300)mm, n-type Si:As[100], Ground, made by Crysteco#6450 (2 ing: 28a(NoF), 28c(135°F))
2.95 6"Øx50mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0033-0.0037)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #7001-1B
4 6"Øx114mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=~0.0025Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #9035-56, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
12.8 6"Ø×318mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0037-0.0052)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #6450-1182
14 6"Ø×330mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0040-0.0054)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #6450-186A
6.2 6"Ø×165mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0036-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #9035-65, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
1.1 6"Ø×152mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0048-0.0049)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #6450-1184, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
5 6"Ø×140mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0048-0.0055)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #1450-1017, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
10.2 6"Øx254mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0038-0.0049)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #4899-10
4.18 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 98mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
8.2 6"Ø×280mm ingot Si[100], "As-Grown" (not semiconductor grade)
13.5 5"Ø×420mm n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0034)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991-25
73.3 5"Ø (5 ingots: 540mm, 254mm, 607mm, 644mm, 201mm), n-type Si:As[100], (0.001-0.007)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco
9.76 5"Ø×290mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0051)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made byCrysteco #C991/57
11.78 5"Ø×375mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0021-0.0039)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991-31
10.27 5"Ø×330mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0022-0.0040)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/58
13.01 5"Ø×416mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0024-0.0029)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/55
8.38 5"Ø×320mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0024-0.0040)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/59
12.21 5"Ø×388mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0029-0.0044)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #.C991/64
10.63 5"Ø×340mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0044)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/56
16.8 5"Ø×546mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0058)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #4761-3305
11.01 5"Ø×380mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0025-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #C991/32
8.9 5"Ø×305mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0025-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #4761-2218
6 5"Ø×200mm ingot n-type Si:As[111], (0.001-0.005)Ohmcm, SEMI, 2Flats, made by Crysteco
5.7 5"Ø×216mm ingot n-type Si:P[111], Ro=(0.89-1.50)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #H457-1654
10.4 5"Ø×364mm ingot n-type Si:As[111] ±2º, Ro=(0.0016-0.0021)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #C991-63
1.6 5"Ø×51mm ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro=(0.0135-0.0142)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco
6.57 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 85mm, 268mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
10 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 10-20 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Prolog due 7/5/2017
1 4"Ø×50mm ingot P/B[100] (1-10)Ohmcm, 2Flats, made by SPC
1.4 4"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 1.23-1.31 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 66.7mm) NO Flats, made by Crysteco #9921
0.75 4"Ø×219mm P/B[110]±1.5°, (59-67)Ohmcm, RRV<2.4%, One SEMI Flat, Diameter=(100.6-100.8) mm, C<3E16/cc, O2<9E17/cc; made in Russia
0.87 4"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 46.5mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
32.3 4"Ø×(504+504+523+147+144)mm, P/B[111], As-Grown, made by Crysteco (5 ing 6c, 10b(Gnd 1F), 14a(Gnd 1F), 21Aa, 30d(Gnd 1F))
6.1 4"Ø ingot P/B[111], Ro: 0.010-0.015 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 348mm) , made by GenerR
17.29 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 0.05-0.15 {0.130-0.145} Ohmcm, (4 ingots: 234mm, 231mm, 167mm, 294mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
2 6"Ø×(108+251)mm, n-type Si:Sb[100], As-Grown, made by Crysteco {#28b 108mm (0.020-0.023)Ohmcm, #28d 251mm (0.010-0.012)Ohmcm}
1 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 4-6 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 75mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
3.66 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111] ±2°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 51.6mm, 143mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
0.76 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.010-0.023 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 38.1mm) , made by CSW
5.62 4"Ø×(67+73+80+85)mm ingots, n-type Si:P[111] (0.15-0.55)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats {Secondary @ 135°}, made by Motorola
5.05 4"Ø×367mm, n-type Si:As[111], Ingot As-Grown (1 ingot: 367mm), made by Crysteco#7227 (13b)
0.6 4"Ø×65mm ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±3°, (10-30)Ohmcm {actual 10.9-12.58}, NO Flats, made by Prolog
0.5 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±3°, Ro:11-15Ohmcm, Ingot scraps, 3 pieces,
8.5 4"Ø×(453+147+135)mm ingots, n-type Si:Sb[111] (0.050-0.090)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats(2), made by Motorola
4.3 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:As[111], Ro: 0.0017-0.0031 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 231mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Motoro
2.08 3"Ø×194mm ingot, P/B[100]±3°, Ro:>20 Ohmcm, SEMI Flat(one), made by Prolog
1.36 3"Ø×174mm p-type Si:Ga[100] (1.77-2.13)Ωcm, Ingot "As-Grown", (82-85)mmØ, RRV=8%, Oxygen=6.2E17/cc; Made by ITME
0.7 3"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 5-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 65.5mm), made by Prolog
2.71 3"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.5-1.0 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 25.4mm, 27mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
1.3 4"Ø×(504+504+523+147+144)mm, P/B[111], As-Grown, made by Crysteco (5 ing 6c, 10b(Gnd 1F), 14a(Gnd 1F), 21Aa, 30d(Gnd 1F))
0.55 3"Ø×36mm ingot, P/B[211]±2°, Ro:1-10Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by CSW
11.91 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro:1.25-2.50Ohmcm, Ground, (4 ingots: 371mm, 109mm, 361mm, 370mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
3.03 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 280mm) 2Flats (2nd flat is 140º from primary)
3.1 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro: 0.0048-0.0049 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 100mm) NO Flats, made by Cryst
0.3 3"Ø×33mm ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±3°, (10-30)Ohmcm {actual 10.9-12.58}, NO Flats, made by Prolog
2.2 2.5"Ø×(216+83)mm ingot P/B, Ro: >1 Ohmcm, made in USA
0.23 2"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±3°, Ro: 0.015-0.020 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 44mm) NO Flats, made by CSW
1.09 2"Ø×35mm ingot n-type Si:P[100], (10-20)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Prolog
2.7 2"Ø ingot Si[100] ±2°, Ro: Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by SPC
0.47 1"Ø ingot P/B[111], Ro: 0.04-0.06 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 102mm) NO Flats, made by Matpur
2 25.4Ø ingot n-type Si:As[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW, Each piece is 100±1mm long, 0.12Kg and costs $250 each
2 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.0176-0.0180 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by CSW, (b)2 Pieces available, each 0.14Kg, $200 and more than 76mm long(/b)
1.83 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro: 0.05-0.09 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 136mm) SEMI, 2Flats,
3 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro: 0.05-0.09 Ohmcm, (3 ingots, each 1"Ø, 0.071Kg, 59mm long and costs $150, made by Motorola
15.06 CZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
22.83 CZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
18.87 CZ SCRAP material FZ mix of n-type and p-type, Ro<1 Ohmcm

How to Grow Silicon

If you've ever wondered how to grow silicon, then you're not alone. Several methods exist. The basic concept is the same. Pure polycrystalline silicon is heated to the melting point. Then, a seed crystal with a desired crystal structure is dipped into the molten silicon. As the rod is rotated, the seed is slowly withdrawn and the molten silicon orients itself with the seed, creating a monocrystalline crystal with a specific orientation.

The first method is known as the CZ method. It involves a crucible with two quartz crucibles, one to grow the silicon ingot and the other to keep the reservoir full of molten silicon. The second crucible then slices the silicon wafer into thin wafers that are slightly larger than the target diameter. After the slicing process, the final silicon wafer passes through several inspections.

Another method is known as the MCZ method, which employs a magnetic field to grow silicon ingots. The magnetic field is applied transversely, longitudinally, or along the silicon cusp. Once the silicon crystals are formed, they go through a series of inspections. Next, they're processed for fabrication. Once the silicon wafers have reached the desired size, they're then cut by diamond edge saws.

This method is very simple and effective. A metal foil is used as a seed crystal and placed in a quartz crucible. Then, dopants are added to the polycrystalline silicon to produce the desired properties. The most common dopants are boron and phosphorus. The silicon atoms grow in a single crystal. These processes have been used for over a century to produce semiconductors. But it is still a long process. There are many challenges to overcome and new techniques are emerging.

The process is complex and requires great skill and expertise. If you're interested in learning more about the process, read this article. You'll be amazed at how easy it is to grow silicon. This method has been around for years and is a proven method for making solar cells. A crucible is used to keep the material from becoming solid. In this case, the crystal is a seed. When the seed crystal is formed, the silicon will be molten, and the crucible will contain the dopants in a constant amount.

Floating-zone silicon is a high-purity form of silicon. The float-zone process contains low levels of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. While both methods are equally effective, there are certain disadvantages to each technique. In particular, you can't rely on these processes to make a perfect product. The main purpose of a crucible is to ensure that you can create the perfect semiconductor. So, if you're wondering how to grow silicone, consider reading this article.

Once you've cooled the silicon, you can start growing the silicon ingot. Once the initial phase is completed, it's time to start the process. You will need to heat the silicon to 1420degC. When the temperature is this high, a seed crystal will be grown. The molten zone will be a single crystal. It will be the same crystal orientation as the final ingot. The seed should rotate in the opposite direction to the crucible to ensure it grows properly.

The CZ method is a variation of the CZ method. In the CZ method, a polycrystalline silicon is placed into a quartz crucible and placed under a magnetic field. A magnetic field is applied either longitudinally or transversely. The process results in a silicon crystal with low oxygen content. This method is used to grow single crystals of silicon. Once the material is formed, it will begin to solidify and a crystal, or nanocrystals, will be created.

The second method of how to grow silicon is called CCZ. This method uses a double quartz crucible to produce molten polycrystalline silicon. The first quartz crucible grows the crystal, while the second one retains the molten silicon reservoir. Once the silicon crystal has grown, it will be cooled to a temperature below its melting point and then grown into a single crystal. After the silicon is cooled, it will solidify into a thin layer, known as a wafer.

What Is a Silicon Ingot?

A silicon ingot is a piece of silicon that has been grown fully. It is then ground to a rough diameter. A notch and what does a silicon ingot look likeflat are then added to make it suitable for wafer-slicing. The orientation of the ingot depends on the diameter of the wafer and the customer's specifications. It is then sliced into wafers and shipped anywhere in the Bay Area.

Crystal growth process

Silicon ingots are manufactured by the crystal growth process. The process starts by melting a polycrystalline rod in a chamber at a controlled temperature. At one end of the rod, a single seed crystal is attached. The crucible is then heated by an induction coil, which moves along the length of the rod. This shifts the molten zone of silicon, causing it to re-solidify into a single crystal with a specific orientation.

The process of growing a silicon ingot can be further refined by improving the uniformity of the growth process. For example, the growth process can be improved by growing the crystal from a smaller melt portion and providing it with a solidified portion from a source. This source can be a liquid or solid feed supply. Another method is to grow a silicon ingot using the double crucible method. This process allows for precise control of the crystal's length and diameter, and can be used to improve the uniformity of the growth.

Crystal growth of silicon ingots requires a special atmosphere for the growth process. The growth atmosphere is argon. The seed and crucible are then counter-rotated and pushed at high speed. The growth atmosphere is kept low enough to avoid oxygen. The temperature of the substrate should be cooled to prevent impurities from forming in the silicon crystal.

Specs of silicon ingots

If you're a builder, you'll be interested in the Specs of Silicon Ingots. They're thin slices of highly pure silicon crystallized to serve as substrates for microelectronic devices, especially in building electronic circuits. Silicon is the second-most abundant element in the universe and is an important component of construction materials. It is also one of the most common semiconductors and is used in many different industries.

Silicon ingots come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions. A typical silicon ingot is 100mm in diameter, though custom diameters can be manufactured on a special order basis. The method used to grow a silicon ingot is called Czochralski and involves placing virgin polycrystalline silicon in a quartz crucible. Silicon ingots are then thinly sliced into circular wafers of between 25 and 300 mm in diameter. The thickness of silicon wafers is dependent on the strength of the silicon ingot. If the wafers are cut too thin, they may be unstable and fail.

The process of manufacturing silicon ingots requires an efficient furnace. SCU furnaces have many features that can optimize the process. Engineered graphite insulated hot zones, top and bottom heaters, an active cooling system, and numerous sensors allow the manufacturer to precisely control all of the parameters involved in the crystallization process. This allows the furnace to produce silicon ingots with consistent growth rates and low inclusions.

Characteristics of mono-crystalline silicon ingots

Mono-crystalline silicon is a tetravalent metalloid and a hard, crystalline solid. This material has a high yield stress, which measures its ability to resist bending under pressure. Yield stress is one of the most important parameters in designing structures and machines, because the higher the yield stress, the stronger the material.

Single-crystalline silicon is immediately available in most volumes. Compared to polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon costs less than one dollar per watt. This lower price is offset by higher efficiency. Mono-crystalline silicon is easier to process, and the cost is less than half of its polycrystalline counterpart.

Mono-crystalline silicon can be produced either as a single-crystalline semiconductor or by doping it with other elements to create n-type and p-type silicon. Its superior electronic properties make it an attractive material for electronics and microelectronics. Mono-crystalline silicon has been used to manufacture discrete components and integrated circuits. The process begins by splitting mono-crystalline silicon ingots into thin wafers. These are then polished to produce a flat substrate. Next, microfabrication processes such as etching and photolithographic patterning can be used to build microelectronic devices.

Mono-crystalline silicon ingots are produced using the CZ crystal growth process. The polysilicon is first purified to a few parts per billion. After this, it is melted at 1420°F. Then, phosphorous and boron are added to the crucible to change the electrical resistance of the semiconductor. Finally, a seed crystal silicon rod is placed on the molten silicon in the crucible and pulled up. This produces a monocrystalline silicon ingot.

Impurities in silicon ingots

The physical properties of silicon ingots are influenced by the presence of impurities. Typically, these impurities are in the form of chromium and iron. These metals are used in steel and other equipment, and can contaminate the silicon. Copper is another impurity that can occur in silicon. Copper is often used as a catalyst for the production of polysilicon. Titanium is an impurity that rarely occurs in silicon.

A continuous cleaning process reduces the impurities in silicon ingots. The proposed method involves three stages: the first two remove metallurgical impurities and the third removes atoms of fusible metals. The final step is to clean the silicon ingots to a very high purity.

The degradation rate of silicon ingots varies with the concentration of impurities. The concentration of impurities in the silicon ingots has a strong impact on solar cell performance. The concentration of impurities affects the base-bulk lifetime and the emitter-bulk lifetime.

The proposed method can be used to clean metallurgical silicon and remove impurities from slag that forms during the cutting of silicon ingots into plates. This method is divided into two stages: the first stage removes volatile impurities while the second stage removes impurities containing slag. This process provides a high-quality silicon suitable for solar cells.

Suitable extinguishing agents for fires

Silicon ingots are suitable extinguished agents for fires, but they also pose certain safety concerns. They may emit fumes when exposed to fire, so firefighters should wear self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing. Other personal precautions include preventing contact with eyes and skin. It is also important to isolate the spill area from other parts of the building, and to remove all sources of ignition.

There are several types of extinguishing agents, each designed to fight a different type of fire. Some extinguishers work by taking away heat from the fire, while others are designed to separate fuel and oxygen. Water extinguishers, for example, are most effective on Class A fires because they will cool the fire. Other types of extinguishers use a chemical reaction to stop the fire.

Some of the most effective types of extinguishing agents for fires are dry chemicals. These contain sodium bicarbonate and sulphuric acid, which combine when the handle is depressed. Carbon dioxide "snow" will then be released from the nozzle, cutting off oxygen to the fire. These are useful when dealing with Class B and C fires, but are also effective against Class A fires as well.

The delivery head of a fire extinguisher includes multiple orifices, ranging in size from 0.3 to two millimeters. One preferred embodiment includes a funneling device for the material to move through. This device will cause the material to fall into the container, where it will be deposited.

Reliability of silicon ingots

The process of creating semiconductors from silicon ingots involves a number of steps. The first step is cutting the ingot into blocks of a specified diameter and length. This process can take anywhere from a few days to a few months, depending on the quality and specification of the final product. The next step is lapping, a process that involves removing saw marks and damage from the surface of the ingot.

This process can improve productivity and reduce process time by cutting ingots more efficiently. This process also increases workability, which is important for ensuring product reliability. The longer the cutting process, the lower the productivity. The more accurate the cut is, the higher the product reliability. Once the ingot is processed, it can be rolled into a variety of products.

Reliability of silicon ingots is essential in the manufacturing process of semiconductors. This process requires careful temperature and speed control. In the early days, silicon ingots were only a few inches wide, but over the years, their size has grown by as much as 1,000 times. It is this process that has allowed the production of new technologies and inventions.

The semiconductor industry is increasingly focusing on reliability. However, it is becoming more difficult to achieve and measure in practice. In order to ensure reliability, semiconductor manufacturers are pursuing a wide range of testing methods. The first step in the reliability process is identifying the sources of defects.