Czochralski (CZ) Process Growing of Silicon Wafers

university wafer substrates

The Czochralski Method

czochralski growh silicon ingotsThe Czochralski method of growing silicon crystals is the cheapest and most common way of making silicon wafers. However, it tends to produce impurities in the silicon, which have a negative effect on the efficiency of solar panels. For higher purity Float Zone (FZ) wafers are used.

 

Get Your CZ Silicon Wafer Quote FAST!

Czochralsk (CZ) and Float Zone (FZ) Grown Silicon Ingots

 

CZ and FZ Ingots in Stock 

FZ NTD 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 50-60 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>400μs, (2 ingots: 197mm, 277mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 8"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 163-174 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>14581μs, (1 ingot: 83mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø As-Grown ingot, 153.6mmØ×180mm, P/B[100]±2.0°, (122-127)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>8,025μs, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 600-900 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 74mm) SEMI, 1Flat (57.5mm), made by Xiamen
FZ 6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,736-3,206 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 36mm) SEMI, 1Flat (57.5mm), made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 25.70-26.29 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2,218μs, (1 ingot: 163mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×275mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.307-0.313)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×101mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.350-0.353)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChem
FZ 6"Ø×124mm n-type Si:P[100], (0.556-0.600)Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×52mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (23.86-25.05)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=16,352μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 3,605-8,162 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 30mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 40-70 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by SilChm due 6/1/2020
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 4.65-5.11 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2,000μs, (1 ingot: 22.5mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø×248mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (0.557-0.565)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 5,000-10,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 34.5mm) JEIDA, made by PHTS
FZ 6"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100] ±2.0°, Ro: >65,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1400μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 94mm) NO Flats, made by Xiamen
FZ 5"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,879-3,258 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 172mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 70-110 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 115mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Topsil
FZ 5"Ø×59mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (5,400-7,200)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,200μs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1,034.10-1,853.00 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, (1 ingot: 252mm) NO Flats, made by ATC
FZ 4"Ø×14mm P/B[100], (2,700-8,300)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 2,600-3,800 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 99mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,724-4,388 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, (1 ingot: 132mm) 1Flat, made by ATC
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2.200-2.221 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 350mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø×55mm P/B[100], (1,000-2,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>700μs, 1 SEMI Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 1,900-2,300 {1,953-2,265} Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 97mm) 1Flat, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 1,900-3,600 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 100mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø×210mm P/B[100] (500-1,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=700μs, Ground, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 41mm) 1Flat, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 8,220-12,252 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 237mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 10.069-10.255 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 65mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[110] ±2°, Ro: >1 Ohmcm, Ground, 1Flat, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 50-100 Ohmcm, 1Flat, made by SPC
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 346.0-366.8 Ohmcm, , made by SilChm due 5/19/2020
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.94-0.96 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, (2 ingots: 244mm, 43mm) 1Flat, made by ATC
FZ 4"Ø×38mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] (0.8-2.5) {0.91-2.29}Ohmcm, Lifetime >300μs, Ox<1E16/cc, C<1E16/cc, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: >1,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 28mm) 1Flat
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[110] ±2°, Ro:>4,800Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat (47.5mm), T>1,000μs, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø×400mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] (446.9-458.9)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=10,670μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø×374mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (429.4-453.7)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime=11,866μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.0116-0.0121 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 90mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,000-4,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 292mm) NO Flats, made by Xiamen
FZ 4"Ø×40mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111], (5,000-13,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,100μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 6,100-7,800 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1300μs, (1 ingot: 38mm) 1Flat, made by PHTS
FZ 4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >1,000 Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 2Flats, made by Gener
FZ 4"Ø×105mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (1-2)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro:>150,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,700μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 60mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro:>90,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,600μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 140mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, Ground, (3 ingots: 146mm, 120mm, 120mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, Ground, (1 ingot: 41mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 4"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >25,000 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 61mm, 72mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 3"Ø×102mm ingot P/B[111] ±2°, (4,400-4,600)Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat, made by SPC
FZ 3"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 1,000-2,000 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ Ingot 3"Ø×(112+265)mm, P/B[111] ±2°, (1,800-3,000)Ohmcm, Lifetime>1,000μs, SEMI, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 4.65-5.11 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>2000μs, (1 ingot: 99mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 3"Ø×(129+131+147)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, (40-60)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 3"Ø×(117+135)mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro>5,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 5,750-6,850 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6000μs, As-Grown, (3 ingots: 81mm, 124mm, 18mm) 1Flat, made by SilChm
FZ 3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 2,000-6,000 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 90mm) NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 3"Ø×188mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±0.5°, Ro:>2,000 {2.330-3,300}Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,640μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 3"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, Ground, (7 ingots: 69mm, 139mm, 146mm, 148mm, 143mm, 148mm, 215mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 3"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1000μs, (2 ingots: 177mm, 172mm) NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 2"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-2 {1.29-1.32} Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1777μs, (2 ingots: 58mm, 84mm) NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 2"Ø×(132+124+124+123+115+107+100+99)mm ingots, P/B[100] ±2°, (1,000-3,000)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by Pluto
FZ 2"Ø×64.5mm ingot P/B[100]±2°, (2,879-3,258)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW
FZ 2"Ø×38mm ingot, P/B[100]±2°, Ro:~2,900Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SPC
FZ 2"Ø×(392+342+304+263+250+128)mm ingots, P/B[111]±2°, (2,000-5,000)Ohmcm, 1 SEMI Flat, made by SiT
FZ 2"Ø×(100+87+86+85+85+84)mm ingots, n-type Si:P[111], (2,000-4,000) {2,166-3,835} Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Pluto
FZ 2"Ø×26mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111]±2°, (5,000-13,000)Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,100μs, NO Flats, made by PHTS
FZ 2"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>1,000μs, Ground, (9 ingots: 85mm, 84mm, 68mm, 84mm, 85mm, 70mm, 131mm, 131mm, 129mm) NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 2"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±0.5°, Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by DX
FZ 1.75"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 6,345-7,698 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 0.28Kg, 75mm, $300 for the piece) MCC Lifetime>7500μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1.5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 6,345-7,698 Ohmcm,(2 ingots: 0.20Kg, 75mm, $250 for each piece) MCC Lifetime>7500μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro:1-3 Ohmcm, (5 ingots: 76mm, 80mm, 80mm, 82mm, 82mm) NO Flats, Lifetime=300μs. made by SPC
FZ P/B[100] ±2°, Ro:1-3Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 81mm total, of which 21mm is usable), Improperly cored (total cost = $90)
FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 2,652-2,743 Ohmcm, 7 pieces, each 0.17Kg and 145 long. $150/piece, made by SilChm
FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro:3,400-4,100Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 75mm, 76mm, 77mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by ITME
FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 120-130 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>8025μs, 6 pieces, each 0.06Kg and 50mm long. $150/piece NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 2,879-3,258 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 31mm, 0.05Kg, $200 for the piece) NO Flats, made by CSW
FZ 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: ~2.7 Ohmcm, Ground, (5 ingots: 38mm, 37mm, 38mm, 37mm, 38mm), made by CSW, 5 pieces, each 0.05Kg and 37cmm long. $100/piece
FZ 1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 6,345-7,698 Ohmcm, (3 ingots: 0.09Kg, 75mm, $200 for each piece) MCC Lifetime>7500μs, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ 1Ø×60mm ground ingot, n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, (1-2)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by SilChm
FZ Silicon Ingot, 48mmØx217mm, n-type Si:P[111], Ro=~300 Ohmcm, (p-type Ro>3,000 Ohmcm), NO Flats, made in TARNOW, Poland
FZ 1"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[100], Ro: >20,000 Ohmcm, NO Flats, Each piece is 98mm long and $500 total
FZ 1"Ø ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111] ±2.0°, Ro: >17,500 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 34.5mm, 29mm, $500 for each piece) NO Flats, made by CSW
FZ 6.35mmØ ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111], Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, (1 lot of 8 rods, each 51mm long) made by CSW
FZ 6.35mmØ ingot Intrinsic Si:-[111], Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm, (1 lot of 11 rods, each ranging from 15mm to 49mm long) made by CSW
FZ 0.5"Ø×110mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 5,497-10,293 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>6,500μs. made by SilChm, 10 pieces, each piece is 0.5"Ø, 0.029Kg and 100mm long ($200.00 each).
FZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1,000-10,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1,000-10,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
FZ SCRAP material Intrinsic, Ro: >10,000 Ohmcm
6"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 40mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 62mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 10-15 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 140mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 184mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[110], Ro: 18.5-23.5 Ohmcm, on Graphite rail 165° from flat,(1 ingot: 137mm) 1 SEMI Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 21mm) NO Flats, made by Antek
6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 0.829-0.925 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 187mm) 2Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 0.555-0.601 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 104mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[110], Ro: >10 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 183mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.010-0.025 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 265mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 250mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø×318mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0037-0.0052)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #6450-1182
6"Ø×12mm ingot, n-type Si:P[100], (6.76-10.28)Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (4 ingots: 135mm, 336mm, 101mm, 428mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Ø×140mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0048-0.0055)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #1450-1017, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
6"Ø×330mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0040-0.0054)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #6450-186A
6"Øx254mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0038-0.0049)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #4899-10
6"Ø×(20+300)mm, n-type Si:As[100], Ground, made by Crysteco#6450 (2 ing: 28a(NoF), 28c(135°F))
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 360mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
6"Øx50mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0033-0.0037)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #7001-1B
6"Øx114mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=~0.0025Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #9035-56, Note: Secondary Flat 135° from Primary
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 50mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.002 Ohmcm, Ground, (6 ingots: 295mm, 230mm, 229mm, 273mm, 247mm, 162mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Topsil
6"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 257mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
5"Ø×273mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0024-0.0040)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/59
5"Ø×546mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0058)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #4761-3305
5"Ø×340mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0044)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/56
5"Ø×388mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0029-0.0044)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #.C991/64
5"Ø×380mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0025-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #C991/32
5"Ø×305mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0025-0.0043)Ohmcm, SEMI Flat (1), made by Crysteco #4761-2218
5"Ø×330mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0022-0.0040)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/58
5"Ø×375mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0021-0.0039)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991-31
5"Ø (5 ingots: 540mm, 254mm, 607mm, 644mm, 201mm), n-type Si:As[100], (0.001-0.007)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco
5"Ø×290mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0051)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made byCrysteco #C991/57
5"Ø×420mm n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0032-0.0034)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991-25
5"Ø×416mm ingot n-type Si:As[100], Ro=(0.0024-0.0029)Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by Crysteco #C991/55
5"Ø×51mm ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro=(0.0135-0.0142)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco
5"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 0.089-1.500 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 215.9mm) NO Flats, made by Cryst
5"Ø×200mm ingot n-type Si:As[111], (0.001-0.005)Ohmcm, SEMI, 2Flats, made by Crysteco
5"Ø×364mm ingot n-type Si:As[111] ±2°, Ro=(0.0016-0.0021)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats (2), made by Crysteco #C991-63
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 126mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.015-0.020 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (1 ingot: 83mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.003 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, Visible Striation marks(2 ingots: 108mm, 150mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.5-0.6 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 112mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.5-0.6 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 250mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.1-0.2 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 60mm, 106mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.1-0.5 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 434mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.003 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 220mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Xiamen
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-100 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 319mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Topsil
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 5-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 196mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 19mm) 1Flat, made by Gener
4"Ø×219mm P/B[110]±1.5°, (59-67)Ohmcm, RRV<2.4%, One SEMI Flat, Diameter=(100.6-100.8) mm, C<3E16/cc, O2<9E17/cc; made in Russia
4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2°, Ro: 0.001-0.010 Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat,
4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-5 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 69mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.025-0.035 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 194mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-5 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 41mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 30-80 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 50mm, 182mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 32mm, 90mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø×(504+504+523+147+144)mm, P/B[111], As-Grown, made by Crysteco (5 ing 6c, 10b(Gnd 1F), 14a(Gnd 1F), 21Aa, 30d(Gnd 1F))
4"Ø ingot P/B[111], Ro: 0.010-0.015 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 159mm) , made by GenerR
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: 4-6 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 18mm, 115mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 0.05-0.15 {0.130-0.145} Ohmcm, (4 ingots: 234mm, 231mm, 167mm, 294mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 4-6 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 25mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 3-9 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.010-0.023 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 38.1mm) , made by CSW
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 398mm, 342mm, 348mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Topsil
4"Ø×(453+147+135)mm ingots, n-type Si:Sb[111] (0.050-0.090)Ohmcm, SEMI Flats(2), made by Motorola
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±3°, Ro: 10-30 Ohmcm, MCC Lifetime>0μs, (1 ingot: 28mm) 1Flat, made by Prolog
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111], Ro: 0.15-0.55 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 73mm, 80mm) 2Flats, made by Motoro
4"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111] ±2°, Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 31mm, 143mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
4"Ø×227mm, n-type Si:As[111], Ingot As-Grown, made by Crysteco#7227 (13b)
3"Ø×194mm ingot, P/B[100]±3°, Ro:>20 Ohmcm, SEMI Flat(one), made by Prolog
3"Ø×174mm p-type Si:Ga[100] (1.77-2.13)Ωcm, Ingot "As-Grown", (82-85)mmØ, RRV=8%, Oxygen=6.2E17/cc; Made by ITME
3"Ø ingot P/B[211] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 36mm) 1Flat, made by CSW
3"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±0.5°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, As-Grown, (3 ingots: 217mm, 32mm, 169mm) 2Flats, made by ITME
3"Ø ingot P/B[112], Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 76mm) 1Flat, made by Umicor
3"Ø ingot P/B[112], Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 76mm) 1Flat, made by Umicor
3"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 1.25-2.50 Ohmcm, Ground, (3 ingots: 57mm, 144mm, 370mm) SEMI, 1Flat, made by Prolog
3"Ø ingot n-type Si:As[111] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.002-0.004 Ohmcm, Ground, (6 ingots: 246mm, 178mm, 194mm, 241mm, 397mm, 260mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Topsil
3"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.01-0.02 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 280mm) 2Flats (2nd flat is 140° from primary)
2.5"Ø ingot P/B[111], Ro: >1 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 83mm) NO Flats, made by USA
2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±2°, Ro: 10-35 Ohmcm, (4 ingots: 22.5mm, 20.2mm, 19.2mm, 19.8mm) NO Flats, made by CSW
2"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 0.0150-0.0165 Ohmcm, Ground, (2 ingots: 72mm, 72mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by Cryst
2"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 10-20 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 36mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
2"Ø ingot P/B[111] ±2°, Ro: 1-10 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 45mm) NO Flats, made by CSW
2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100], Ro: <20 Ohmcm, Ground, SEMI, 1Flat, made by SPC
2"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, (2 ingots: 50mm, 50mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
2"Ø ingot Si[100] ±2°, Ro: Ohmcm, As-Grown, made by SPC
1"Ø ingot P/B[100] ±2°, Ro: 5-35 Ohmcm, Ground, 3 pieces, each 0.08Kg and 66mm long. $150/piece NO Flats NO Flats, made by Prolog
1"Ø ingot P/B[100], Ro: 0.0150-0.0165 Ohmcm, Ground, (Each piece is ~0.09Kg and costs $150 for the piece, 4 ingots: 72mm, 72mm, 67mm, 67mm) SEMI, 2Flats, made by CSW
1"Ø ingot P/B[110] ±2.0°, Ro: 1-5 Ohmcm, 5 pieces, each 0.12Kg and 99mm long. $150/piece NO Flats
1"Ø ingot P/B[111], Ro: 0.04-0.06 Ohmcm, Ground, (1 ingot: 102mm) NO Flats, made by Matpur
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:As[110] ±0.5°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, (3 ingots: 119mm, 117mm, 127mm) SEMI, 1Flat, Empak cst, made by CSW, 3 Ingots, each 0.15Kg, 117mm and $200
25.4Ø ingot n-type Si:As[100] ±2.0°, Ro: 0.001-0.005 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW, Each piece is 100±1mm long, 0.12Kg and costs $250 each
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100] ±2°, Ro: 0.0176-0.0180 Ohmcm, Ground, NO Flats, made by CSW, (b)2 Pieces available, each 0.14Kg, $200 and more than 76mm long(/b)
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.0118-0.0132 Ohmcm, Each ingot 0.06Kg, 52mm and $100 for piece(4 ingots: 52mm, 52mm, 52mm, 52mm) NO Flats, made by Prolog
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[100] ±3°, Ro: 0.05-0.15 Ohmcm, NO Flats, made by CSW, 5 pieces, each 0.06Kg and 52mm long. $150/piece
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro: 0.05-0.09 Ohmcm, (1 ingot: 136mm) SEMI, 2Flats,
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111] ±2°, Ro: 20-30 Ohmcm, 3 pieces, 0.06Kg and 50 long. $100/piece) No Flats, made by Prolog
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:P[111], Ro: 15-22 Ohmcm, NO Flats, 3 pieces each 0.09Kg, 77.5mm long, $200/piece, made by CSW
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[111], Ro: 0.05-0.09 Ohmcm, (3 ingots, each 1"Ø, 0.071Kg, 59mm long and costs $150, made by Motorola
CZ SCRAP material p-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
CZ SCRAP material n-type, Ro: 1-1,000 Ohmcm
CZ SCRAP material CZ mix of n-type and p-type, Ro<1 Ohmcm
1"Ø ingot n-type Si:Sb[100], Ro: 0.010-0.023 Ohmcm, (7 ingots: 108mm, $200 total for each 108mm piece), aro 1-2 wks , made 

Important Czochralski Terms

Below are some imporant terms related to the Czochralski ingot growth method.

  • crystallized silicon    
  • silicon crystals
  • crystal growth
  • silicon wafers
  • silicon boules
  • molten silicon
  • crystallographic orientations
  • silicon melt
  • semiconductor materials
  • quartz crucibles
  • crystal quality
  • crystal boules 
  • czochralski crystal
  • polycrystalline silicon 
  • #semiconductor manufacturing   

What is Czochralski Ingot Growth?

Float-zone silicon, as an alternative to Czochralski crystals, is a process used for growing single crystals. The process limits crystal shapes and sizes by the design of the crystal puller. The result is a high-purity, consistent silicon product. If you're interested in learning more about the process of growing crystals, read this article. It will answer the question "What is Czochralski ingot growth?"

what is the czochralski method

What is the Process of Growing Single Crystals of Silicon

The Czochralski process has been used for more than a century to grow high-purity, high-quality silicon. Once the standard for silicon production, it is now widely used to grow the wafers that are the basis for a host of advanced products, such as solid state electronics and highly efficient solar cells. The process has the advantage of allowing repeatable growth and ensuring the intrinsic specifications are accurately controlled.

The Czochralski method is a continuously improving process that combines pyrotechnics with thermodynamic considerations to produce bulk single crystals of silicon, fluorides, metals, and multi-component solid solutions. The method also allows the creation of high-quality single crystals from a wide range of compounds. Once grown, the Czochralski method can also be used to grow a variety of other types of crystals, including a multitude of oxides, metals, and multi-component solutions.

The CCZ process is a continuous supply method, requiring a double quartz crucible. A single crystal is grown in the first quartz crucible while the second maintains a reservoir for the molten silicon that is used to replenish the crucible during the growth process. The Czochralski method also uses an additional feeder system that allows the crystals to grow in batches.

Once a single silicon monocrystal is produced, it is then poured into a Silica crucible. It is then melted under a controlled atmosphere and has a melting point of 1,412 degC. The seed crystal is dipped into the molten silicon and pulled upwards, forming a cylinder-shaped monocrystal. The pulling rate is controlled to ensure a constant diameter for the monocrystal.

The Czochralski method of silicon bulk production is the most common method used to produce single crystals. The basic process starts with chunks of a base material, usually polysilicon, and then it is melted using radio-frequency or resistance heaters. A seed crystal is then immersed into the free melt surface and withdrawn from the melt. In many instances, the seed crystal is withdrawn from the melt under rotation. This causes the melt to crystallize at the interface between the seed and the melt.

What is the Technique for Growing Organic Crystals?

This article presents a technique for growing high-quality single crystals of organic compounds in glass vessels using the Czochralski method. This method allows the growing crystal to be lifted from the molten material's walls and middle. The low melting temperature of organic crystals allows them to be grown in glass vessels. This technique is best suited for growing organic materials with nonlinear optical properties.

The optimal recipe shows a reduced multi-crystallization rate and a flatter growing interface. However, this recipe reduces the growth rate by about eighty percent, thereby reducing the dislocations in the upper half of the ingot. This technique also results in a significantly longer solidification time compared to the original recipe. However, the reduced yield may not be as high as expected.

This technique also uses two furnaces - one with the melting material and the second with the crystal holder. The crystal holder rotates independently of the crucible, which allows the growth rate to be monitored. A separation wall is inserted into the melted material and ends at a distance above the bottom of the crucible. The melting material must be controlled by a steady magnetic field to avoid turbulence and turbulent flow.

In addition to this, the seed crystal must be preserved at a higher temperature in the center of the crucible than the outer periphery. This thick seed layer prevents accurate height and arrangement control. The growing interface is concave, and it exhibits a high growth rate deviation between the periphery and center, which is very evident at the end of the casting stage.

The Bridgeman and Stockbarger methods are similar, but use an industrial furnace. The Bridgeman method uses an industrial furnace, and the Stockbarger method introduces a shelf between the two furnaces. This helps control the gradient of temperature. Czochralski ingots are an excellent way to grow single crystals of metals, salts, and semiconductors. This method utilizes industrial furnaces to melt the material in a cylindrical crucible. It then results in the extraction of a single-crystal ingot.

How is the Magnetic Field Effect Used to Grow Crystals Using the Czochralski Ingots?

The Czochralski ingot growth process is a key step in the manufacturing of silicon-based industrial semiconductor devices. This process requires optimization to achieve the required crystal quality. A multi-scale numerical study based on 2D global thermal models and 3D melt convection simulations has been used to improve the process development. In addition, the transversal magnetic field can be used to control crystal growth, suppress melt turbulence, and optimize the growing crystals' properties.

The magnetic field effect on Czochralski ingot growth can be controlled with a superconducting magnet. It is a proven method that produces multiple ingots from a single crucible. The Czochralski ingot growth apparatus includes a growing furnace, pulling device, and magnetic field generator. The growing furnace is located between the magnet units. The magnetic field generated by the generator affects the molten semiconductor material.

The Czochralski ingot growth process has the potential to produce large areas of silicon. A single Czochralski crystal growing furnace can grow multiple 12 cm diameter crystals sequentially, each one of which can be sliced with a multiblade slurry saw. The goal is to have a 0.1-0.25-mm slice thickness with a minimum kerf, which was achieved on a single 12-cm crystal during an experiment with a 10 kg melt.

Another technique, known as transient current technique (TCT), has been successfully developed. In this method, detectors were exposed to neutrons and protons at different temperatures. The neutrons emitted were 9 MeV, and the proton equivalent flux was 2A--10 15 n/cm2. Thermal donors were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 AdegC. The TCT data were used to extract the full depletion voltage.

Modeling of large-diameter Silicon crystal growth by the Czochralski method is crucial to understand the role of heat transfer and melt dynamics. Detailed analysis of the growth process allows the study of different upward flow regimes under the crystal, which are close to optimal in terms of the deflection of the crystallization front and the distribution of the V/G parameter. With this, the Czochralski method is an important tool for manufacturing modern semiconductors.

Float-zone Silicon as a High-Purity Alternative to Czochralski Crystals

Float-zone silicon is a high-purity alternative to Czichoglelski ingot growth, with low levels of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. Both methods are equally effective, though there are some differences between them. Float-zone silicon uses a molten zone to eliminate impurities. This molten zone carries impurities away, resulting in a high-purity semiconductor.

Float-zone silicon is more suited to detector applications due to its high resistivity. In detectors, the float-zone silicon has a low bulk generation current and high minority carrier lifetime. This decreases detector noise. Particle detectors, on the other hand, do not require high minority carrier lifetime and low bulk generation current. The high initial lifetime of high-purity silicon is not useful if the detector is exposed to small radiation fluences.

Another method is based on the deposition of polycrystalline silicon onto a seed crystal. This method can produce single crystals with high purity. This method can produce silicon rods that meet the requirements of single crystals. It is also capable of producing crystals with high-quality and low-impurity. The process requires less time than Czochralski ingot growth.

The growth of semiconductors is based on the surface of the substrate. To grow silicon, the substrate must be clean and free of oxides and organic residues. HF-based cleaning solutions can remove organic compounds from the surface of Si. Other in situ cleaning methods can prepare the substrate for epitaxial growth. Other techniques include thermal annealing, ion bombardment, and sputtering.

Float-zone silicon as a highly pure alternative to Czochralski ingot growing processes has been shown to be more effective in producing high-purity silicon than Czochralski ingot growth. It is also more flexible and yields higher quality silicon than Czochralski ingot growth. There are many benefits to both methods.

In the Czochralski process, high-purity silicon is loaded into a quartz crucible. A thin rod shaped like a seed crystal is dipped into the silicon and rotated at the same time. The silicon crystals are then exposed to a high-purity ingot growing solution under controlled temperature gradients.

Czochralski (CZ) Growth Process Answers

We provide a question and answer service for all your silicon wafer ingot growth questions. Why waste valuable time when you just have a need for a quick answer to a simple question?

Email us your questions today!

Czochralski (CZ) is the most common method to grow of crystalline silicon (c-Si). Silicon ingots used to make silicon wafers. The other method Float Zone (FZ) cost more to grow silicon ingots, but has unique properties that make it necessary for some semicondcutor applications.

Please let us know if you need for CZ or FZ grown Ingots!

Silicon Wafer Sizes SEMI Standard

Diameter 50.8+/-.38mm 76.2+/-.63mm 100+/-.5mm 125+/-.5mm 150+/-.2mm 200+/-.2mm 300+/-.2mm
Thickness 279+/-25um 381+/-25um 525+/-20 um 625+/-20um 675+/-20um 725+/-20um 775+/-20um
Primary Flat Length 15.88+/-1.65mm 22.22+/-3.17mm 32.5+/-2.5mm 42.5+/-2.5 57.5+/-2.5mm Notch Notch
Secondary Flat Length 8+/-1.65mm 11.18+/-1.52mm 18.0+/-2.0mm 27.5+/-2.5mm 37.5+/-2.5mm N/A N/A
Primary Flat Location {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg. {110}+/-1 deg.

Where Can I learn About The Czochralsk Process?

The following books can help you learn more about CZ Process. Or simply ask us your question!

Mikhail Korzhik, Alexander Gektin editors

G. MüllerP. Rudolph, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001

Crystal Growth from the Melt

The authors delve into the historical developments and theories of crystal growth as well as practical applications of crystal growth techniques and characterizations.
Chapter 2 focuses on the nucleation of the surface and discusses the equilibrium crystal-ambient phase, nucleus formation, rate of nucleation, saturation nucleus density, second-layer nucleation in homoepitaxy.  The chapter also covers the mechanism of clustering in heteroepitaxy, and the effects of surfactants on nucleation.

Crystal Growth Technique

Part B of the book covers the history of magnetic liquid-encapsulated growth, magnetic field interactions with the melt, dislocation density, magnetic field effects on impurity segregation, optical characterization of Indium Phosphide (InP) that is Iron (Fe) doped.

Czochralski (Cz) Growth applications of Single Crystals for fabrication wafers to make Semiconductors and Solar Cells.

Bulk Crystal Growth

future bulk crystal growth

D. T. J. Hurle - 2016

Bridgman and Related Growth Techniques

This volume has two parts.  The first part investigates crystal growth from various authorities on the subject including.

  • I. Sunagawa – Investigations of crystal growth in earth and planetary sciences
  • E. Monberg – Bridgman and related growth techniques
  • D.T.J. Hurle and B. Cockayne – Czochralski growth
  • J. Bohm A. Ludge and W. Shroder – Crystal growth by floating zone melting
  • P.J. Jansens and G.M van Rosmalen – Use of a magnetic field in melt growth
  • A.E.D.M van der Heijden – Fractional crystallization
  • A. McPherson – Crystallization of biological macromolecules
  • K. Byrappa – Hydrothermal growth of crystals
  • W. Tolksdorf – Flux growth
  • E. Kaldis and M. Piechotka – Bulk crystal growth by physical vapor transport

The second part of the volume covers growth mechanisms and dynamics

  • J.P. Garandet, J.J. Favier and D. Camel – Segregation Phenomena in crystal growth from the melt
  • G. Muller and A. Ostrogorsky – Convection in Melt Growth
  • J. Volkl – Stress in the cooling crystal
  • F. Dupret and N. van den Bogaert – Modelling Bridgman and Czochralski growth
  • V.A. Tatarchenko – Shaped crystal growth
  • J.D. Hunt and S.Z. Lu – Crystallisation of eutectics monotectics and peritectics
  • P.J. Phillips – Spherulitic crystallization in macromolecules
  • S. Sarag – Fundamentals of aqueous solution growth
  • F. Lefaucheux and M.C. Robert – Crystal growth in gels

Handbook of Crystal Growth

handbook of crystal growht by numerous authors

Edited by Thomas F. Kuech

This handbook has two parts and cites the work of numerous authors to guide semiconductor professionall through the various techniques to grow and work with crystals.
The First Part: Basic techniques

  • Epitaxy for Energy Materials - Roberto Fornari
  • Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for Current III-V and Nitride Semiconductor Compound Issues - Evelyn Gil et al
  • The Science and Practice of Metal-Organic Vapor Phas Epitaxy (MOVPE) – Robert M. Biefeld et al
  • Principles of Molecular Beam Epitaxy – Aaron J. Ptak
  • Molecular Beam Epitaxy with Gaseous Sources – Hajime Asahi
  • Liquid-Phase Epitaxy – Michael G. Mauk
  • Solid-Phase Epitaxy – Brett C. Johnson, et al
  • Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) – Hiroshi Fujioka
  • Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires – Jon M. Redwing et al
  • Selective Area Masked Growth (Nano to Micro) – Jeong Dong Kim et al
  • Organic van der waals epitaxy versus Tepmlated Growth by Organic-Organic Heteroepitaxy – Clemens Simbrunner, Helmut Sitter
  • Epitaxy of Small Organic Molecules – Paul G. Evans, Josef W. Spalenka
  • Epitaxial Growth of Oxide Films and Nanostructures – Hidekazu Tanaka
  • Epitaxy of Carbon-Based Materials: Diamond Thin Film – Hongdong Li
  • Magnetic Semiconductors – Fumihiro Matsukura, Hideo Ohno
  • MOCVD of Nitride – Hiroshi Amano
  • Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Nitrides for Advanced Electronic Materials – G. Koblmuller, J.R. Lang, E.C. Young, J.S. Speck
  • Epitaxial Graphene – D. Kurt Gaskill

The Second Part: Materials, Processes, and Technology

  • Chemical Vapor Deposition of Two-Dimensional Crystals – Zachary R. Robinson, Scott W. Schmucker, Kathleen M. McCreary, Enrique D. Cobas
  • Kinetic Processes in Vapor Phase Epitaxy – Nathan Newman, Mahmoud Vahidi
  • Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Chemical Kinetics – Thomas F. Kuech
  • Transport Phenomena in Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactors – Roman Talalaev
  • Nucleation and Surface Diffusion in Molecular Beam Epitaxy – Tatau Nishinaga
  • Predicted Thermal – and Lattice-Mismatch Stresses – E. Suhir
  • Low-Temperature and Metamorphic Buffer Layers – John E. Ayers
  • Self-Assembly in Semiconductor Epitaxy: From Growth Mechanisms to Device Applications – Arnab Bhattacharya, Bhavtosh Bansal
  • Atomic Layer Depostion – H.C.M. Knoops et al
  • Silicon Carbide Epitaxy – Marek Skowronski, Tsunenobu Kimoto
  • In-Situ Characterization of Epitaxy – April S. Brown, Maria Losurdo
  • X-Ray and Electron Diffraction for Epitaxial Structures – Mark S. Goorsky
  • Growth of III/V’s on Silicon: Nitride, Phosphides, Arsenides and Antimonides – Kerstin Volz et al
  • Heteroepitaxial Growth of Si, Si1-xGex-, and Ge-Based Alloy – Osamu Nakatsuka, Shigeaki Zaima

 

What is The Czochralski Pulling Process

The Czochralski pulling process is a common way to grow crystals in crucibles. The apparatus used in Czochralski pulling processthis process includes a crucible with a melting material and a separate crystal holder. The holder rotates to determine the growth rate of the crystals. The separation wall penetrates the melting material and ends some distance above the bottom of the crucible. The separation wall is connected to a drive that co-rotates the crucible.

The Czochralski pulling process begins with melting a high purity polysilicon. A single crystal silicon seed is placed in the center of a rotating quartz crucible and is drawn upwards. The molten silicon follows. The temperature is adjusted to reduce the dislocations in the neck crystal. The pulling speed is adjusted to widen the crystal to its full diameter. This process is then repeated until the desired crystal size is obtained.

The continuous Czochralski pulling process is a simple method of separating crystals with similar properties. The crucible is made of a metal, typically platinum, iridium, or rhodium. The crucible material is used as the separation wall. The Czochralski pulling process is characterized by the use of a vacuum to extract the crystal nucleus.